The Ammunition


Perforation of Finite Targets

Penetration in Semi-Infinite Targets

Penetration and Perforation Calculations


Covid-19 Case Numbers - Similarity with Penetration




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Penetration Process

A specific characteristic is the penetration of the rod into the armor: The small cross-sectional area of about 5 cm square of the rod can not transfer the enormous impact energy (similar to a main battle tank with a velocity of 60 km per hour) directly to the armor. Armor and rod material are overloaded with a multiple of their strength properties and under this enormous pressure they behave like liquids. The rod material flows off mushroom-shaped and the target material is displaced together with the rod material out of the penetration channel. The tip of the rod penetrates continuously the armor with a little more than the half of the impact velocity, while the tail moves practically with an undamped velocity. During the penetration the rod becomes continually shorter. If the remaining rod reaches the inside of the armor, it causes together with many fragments of the armor fatal damages.

For viewing a computer animation (wmv-file)

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    Entry hole at a single target with 70° obliquity


    Exit hole at a single target with 70° obliquity


       © April 2022 by Willi Odermatt